An inorganic salt that is hygroscopic in nature and absorbs moisture (water) from the surrounding atmosphere and is found as a tetrahydrate .
Calcium nitrate tetrahydrate (Ca(NO3)2 4H2O) is a crystalline salt that becomes liquid on absorbing water from the air. That’s why it is also known as hygroscopic salt.
It is also stocked under the names of different labels in the market like Nitric acid, calcium salt, tetrahydrate, Calcium nitrate tetrahydrate, 98%, extra pure, calcium nitrate–water (1/4), Calcium nitrate tetrahydrate ACS reagent, and MFCD00149604 .
It is obtainable in the market in various sizes like in the packaging of 100 grams, 250 grams, 500 grams, 1 kilogram, 5 kilograms, 25 kilograms, and 50 kilograms .
It is typically packed in plastic bottles tightly sealed. But if its quantity is 50kg, it is packaged in the packaging of a fiber carton .
The molecular structure of calcium nitrate tetrahydrate (Ca(NO3)2 4H2O) is composed of calcium ion (Ca+2) at a central position, two nitrogen atoms bonded with oxygen atoms forming a polyatomic ion named nitrate and water molecules attached with them. The structure of Calcium Nitrate (Ca(NO3)2 4H2O) is shown below.
Figure 1: Structure of Calcium Nitrate Tetrahydrate (Ca(NO3)2 4H2O) 
There are many possible ways of producing calcium nitrate tetrahydrate (Ca(NO3)2 4H2O) in the laboratory that are described below .
Reaction between calcium carbonate and nitric acid:
The chemical reaction that occurs by combining calcium carbonate and nitric acid is shown below.
We will make calcium nitrate tetrahydrate (Ca(NO3)2 4H2O) in laboratory by using calcium carbonate and nitric acid. The procedure is described below in detail .
Equipment and Chemicals:
Small beaker, 250cm3 beaker, tripod stand, Bunsen burner, gauze, filter paper, Evaporation basin, and filter funnel.
Hot water bath, measuring cylinder, watch glass, stirring rod and sample bottles.
Spatula, eye goggles and thermometer
2.5 grams of calcium carbonate
25cm3 of nitric acid
Foremost, take calcium carbonate powder and weigh it. Consume 2.5 grams of the total powder and preserve the remaining for future use.
Weight nitric acid, use protective eye goggles while dealing with nitric acid as it is corrosive in nature.
Measure 25 cm3 of HNO3 by using a measuring cylinder and place it in a beaker (250 cm3). Warm the acid at 60 degrees Celsius by using a Bunsen burner. Keep stirring the solution then use a spatula to add calcium carbonate powder in small portions in the solution. Solid precipitates can be detected in the beaker.
Then filter the solution by using the evaporating bath. The solution evaporates slowly and crystal formation occurs. Allow the concentrated solution to cool.
Now filter the crystals and dry them by using filter paper. Put one filter paper and crystals on the watch glass and then dry them out with other filter paper.
Ultimately, leave them to dry out at normal room temperature.
The applications of calcium carbonate tetrahydrate (Ca(NO3)2 4H2O) are described below.
Calcium nitrate tetrahydrate (Ca(NO3)2 4H2O) acts as a source of nitrogen and calcium, so it is utilized in the manufacturing of fertilizers in agricultural industries.
Calcium nitrate tetrahydrate (Ca(NO3)2 4H2O) is also used in match manufacturing industries because it is a strong oxidizing agent.
It on top performs a significant role in making explosives. It is utilized in light industries for making incandescent lamps.
Calcium nitrate tetrahydrate (Ca(NO3)2 4H2O) is additionally used in chemical industries for making other nitrate compounds necessary as a raw material for the manufacturing of other compounds.
It is also consumed in making cold packs that possess the ability to regenerate. It also acts as a coagulant used in the dipping process of wastewater management.
Calcium nitrate is additionally used in treating some plant diseases caused by deficiencies of nitrogen and calcium .
The specifications of calcium nitrate tetrahydrate (Ca(NO3)2 4H2O) are described below in the table .
Strong oxidizing agent: Calcium nitrate is a strong oxidizing agent and can cause many health-related issues on exposure.
Health Effects: Following are the health effects that are caused by calcium nitrate tetrahydrate (Ca(NO3)2 4H2O) and are described below.
Eyes Exposure to Ca(NO3)2 4H2O: If eyes are exposed inadvertently to the powdered form of calcium nitrate tetrahydrate, itching, irritation, and redness may occur. First Aid Measure: Carefully wash the eyes with excess water for 10 to 15 minutes. In case of pain, consult the doctor immediately.
Skin Exposure to Ca(NO3)2 4H2O: In case of skin exposure, skin rash, itching and irritation may occur on the contaminated body part. Prolonged exposure can cause Red Blisters. First Aid Measure: Promptly remove the contaminated clothes. Wash the body with plenty of water. Use neutral soap for washing purposes. Washed clothes can be re-used.
Accidentally Ingested: Ca(NO3)2 4H2O on ingestion can cause disturbance in the digestive system, nausea, headache, and dizziness. First Aid Measure: Don’t offer anything to eat or drink to the victim. Instantly assist the victim to the hospital so that he can be handled accordingly.
Inhalation: On inhalation, it can cause respiratory tract infections which can lead to severe health problems. First Aid Measure: Carefully move the victim to a spacious place where fresh air is available. Give artificial breathing, if the victim is not breathing.
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