Ammonium Chloride

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Ammonium Chloride

ACS Grade; CAS# 12125-02-9; MF: NH4CI; FW: 53.49; Storage: 15-30 Degrees Celcius – Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl).

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Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) is a white crystalline solid and chloride ammonium ion highly soluble in water.

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Caisson Labs

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15 to 30°C

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32486powder / 100gm$14.75A054-100GM


Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) is a white crystalline solid and an inorganic chloride having ammonium ion that is highly soluble in water [1].

  1. Introduction
    • Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) basically is a salt of ammonia and hydrogen chloride. An important constituent of the nitrogen cycle. In its purest form, it exists as white crystals. The presence of chloride ion (Cl) makes it acidic in nature [2].
    • It is obtainable in the established market under the recognizable names of various descriptive labels like Sal ammonia, Ammonium muriate, Ammonium chloride ((NH4) Cl), MFCD00143604, ammonia hydrochloride, and Ammonium chloride, 99.5%, extra pure [3].
    • It is available in different sizes of poly bottles packaging of 5 grams, 10 grams, 25 grams, and 500 grams. It is equally attainable in bulk quantities of 2.5Kg and 5Kg [4].
  2. Structure
    The structure of ammonium chloride is shown below [1].

    Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) structure

    Figure 1: Structure of Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl).

  3. Procedure
      • The preparation procedure of ammonium chloride is described below in detail [2].
      • Solvay process is an important industrial process that results in the production of sodium carbonate. Along with the production of soda ash, it also produces ammonium chloride as a by-product.
      • In this process, a brine solution is treated with ammonia gas. Then it is treated with carbon dioxide gas and finally let the solution cooled. After cooling, sodium bicarbonate precipitates and comes out of the solution [5]. Along with sodium carbonate, ammonium chloride is produced as a by-product.
      • The chemical reaction that occurs during the Solvay process is shown below.

    Carbon dioxide + Ammonia + Sodium chloride + water ➔ Ammonium chloride + sodium carbonate

    CO2 + NH3 + 2NaCl + H2O ➔ 2NH4Cl + Na2CO3

    • Another way of producing Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) commercially is to react ammonia with hydrochloric acid. After the reaction, aqueous ammonium chloride is produced. The chemical reaction is shown below [2].

    Ammonia + Hydrochloric Acid ➔ Ammonium chloride

    NH3 + HCl ➔ NH4Cl

  4. Specifications
    The specifications of ammonium chloride are described below [4][7].

    PropertiesAmmonium Chloride
    Physical stateSolid
    AppearanceDry powder or crystalline
    • Powder: White
    • Crystal: Colorless
    TasteSalty or saline
    Molecular weight53.49
    Melting Point
    • 340 degrees Celsius
    • Sublimation occurs
    Boiling PointAccording to ICSC, 520 degrees Celsius (sublimes)
    Density1.5 g/cm³
    SolubilitySoluble in water, alcohol and ammonia Insoluble in acetone and ether.
    Vapor pressure1 mm Hg at 321 °F
    Formal charge0
    CAS Number12125-02-9
  5. Applications
    The applications of ammonium chloride are discussed below [8].

    • Preparation of trimethylamine hydrochloride:
      It plays an important role in the preparation of trimethylamine hydrochloride by providing a nitrogen source.
    • Autophagy Inhibitor:
      Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) acts as an autophagy inhibitor in smooth muscle cells.
    • Breakdown of Red Blood Cells:
      Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) is additionally used in the buffer solution that plays a significant role in the lysis of Red blood cells (RBC’s).
    • Household Products:
      Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) is used in home maintenance products and personal care products.
    • Wastewater treatment:
      It is additionally used in wastewater treatment.
    • Industrial Uses:
      Ammonium chloride is used as flame retardants, ion exchange agents, adhesives, sealant chemicals, finishing agents, and anti-scaling agents at the industrial level.
    • Pharmacology Industry:
      In pharmacology medicine, it is used in a number of medicines especially in cough syrups.
    • Food additives:
      Ammonium chloride is also used in the food industry. It is used in making bread.
    • Fertilizers:
      Ammonium chloride is an excellent source of nitrogen. That’s why it is used in the fertilizer for crops and plants. Rice and wheat crops are fertilized by using ammonium chloride-containing fertilizers.
    • Cooling baths:
      It is used for lowering the temperature of baths.
    • Flux in preparation of metal:
      It also acts as a flux in the preparation of metals undergoing galvanization.
    • Feed supplements for cattle:
      Ammonium chloride is equally used as a constituent of feed supplements of cattle.
  6. Hazards and Safety
    The potential hazards and safety measures are described below [6].

    • Eye Contact:
      It can typically cause serious irritation, considerable eye damage, and infection if not treated timely. It can typically cause temporary injury to the eyes on prolonged exposure.
      First Aid Measure:
      In the specific cases of direct contact with eyes, immediately wash the eyes with plenty of distilled water. Hold the eyelids open and cleanse the face of the victim repeatedly for 15-20 minutes. In case of severe irritation or redness, adequately consult an ophthalmologist as soon as possible.
    • Skin Contact:
      Graciously according to hazard statements, it can also cause redness, evident skin irritation, and mild rashes.
      First Aid Measure:
      In case of physical contact of powder or liquid form with the intact skin of specific body parts, immediately wash the skin or specific body parts with excess water. Carefully remove the contaminated clothes immediately and properly wash them. The victim can use washed clothes again. You can employ neutral soaps to progressively reduce irritation. In case of severe infection, properly consult medical advice.
    • Respiratory Tract Infections:
      According to the hazard statement, if accidentally inspired it can cause difficulty in breathing and irritation. During a reaction, white fumes may produce in the laboratory. Do not breathe dust, mist, or noxious vapors of ammonium chloride.
      First Aid Measure:
      In case of inhalation of fumes or vapors, immediately move toward fresh air and offer water to the identified victim. Typically seek medical advice.
    • Ingestion:
      According to the hazard statement, if mistakenly ingested it can cause nausea, vomiting, and a headache.
      First Aid Measure:
      If it is consumed mistakenly, immediately arrange some water for the victim. Seek medical care as soon as possible.
    • Safety Measures
      1. Protection:
        • Use safety goggles, sterile gloves, and protective clothes like a lab coat.
        • Properly use practical things that effectively are chemical resistant for possible protection.
      2. Ventilated Places:
        • It is necessary to use well-ventilated places for the experimentation procedures.
  7.  References
  1. ChEBI:31206 – Ammonium Chloride
  2. TOPPR – Ammonium Chloride
  3. PubChem NIH – Ammonium Chloride 2.4.2 Depositor-Supplied Synonyms
  4. Sigma-Aldrich – Ammonium Chloride (NH4Cl)
  5. Chemistry LibreTexts – 5.13:Industrial Chemical Reactions – The Solvay Process
  6. Sigma-Aldrich – Ammonium Chloride Safety Data Sheet
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