Murashige and Skoog Medium (MS Media)
Murashige and Skoog medium (MS Media) is effective at promoting the phenomenal growth of plant tissue culture typically containing essential vitamins, micronutrients, and macronutrients .
- This effective Murashige and Skoog medium (MS Media) was first discovered during the research of inventing a new plant growth regulator (responsible hormones that typically promote the phenomenal growth in plants) in 1962 and used by concerned scientists named Toshio Murashige (a professor in plant biology) and Folke K. Skoog (a plant physiologist).
- Murashige and Skoog medium adequately provides all the necessary blend of micro and macronutrients to the specific culture and helps in promoting normal culture growth.
- Murashige and Skoog medium (MS Media) is available in the market in powdery form. It comes in packaging of 25g, 1L, 10L, 25L, 50L, and 100L in sterile containers or gamma-irradiated PETG bottles .
- The particular procedure for the necessary preparation of Murashige and Skoog medium (MS Media) is discussed below along with the standard components typically used in the production process .
- Murashige and Skoog medium (MS Media) comprises of following fundamental components that are given below:
|Organic components||Organic components of Murashige and Skoog medium contain nutrients like amino acids and vitamins. Important for the differentiation in the culture.|
|Inorganic components||Inorganic components contain micronutrients and macronutrients which are mainly mineral salts. Important for the development of plant.|
|Gelling agents||These agents (gelatins and agar) are used for supporting the development of culture.|
|Growth hormones||Different growth hormones are also present in the MS Medium like Cytokinins (hormone that stimulate cell division), Gibberellins (promote cell growth) and Auxins (promote cell elongation).|
- Preferred Stock Preparation: The specific stock of essential micronutrients, iron, necessary vitamins, and Cytokinins is carefully prepared before the proper preparation of Murashige and Skoog medium.
- Micronutrients Stock Preparation: This stock preparation typically includes different components:
|Copper sulfate pentahydrate||2.5mg|
|Sodium molybdate dihydrate||25mg|
- Take a 1-liter beaker with 400ml distilled water in it and dissolve all the above-mentioned salts in the water. Gently stir the solution until all the necessary salts get dissolved. Promptly transfer the possible solution to the volumetric flask, and 10ml of the solution is pipetted out to instantly make 1L of Murashige and Skoog medium.
- Vitamin Stock Preparation: This stock is prepared by using following components:
- All the principal components are mixed in 50ml distilled water and then stir the solution gently. Pipette out 1ml solution for Murashige and Skoog medium They must be instantly added after autoclaving to carefully save it from excess burning heat.
- Iron Stock Preparation: Following components are used:
|Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt dihydrate (Na2EDTA)||672mg|
|Iron(II) sulfate heptahydrate||556mg|
- Dissolved these components in 80ml distilled water. After stirring thoroughly, pipette out 5ml solution for preparing Murashige and Skoog medium.
- Cytokinins Preparation: The components included are:
- Dissolve 10 ml kinetin in hydrochloric acid. Subsequently, add distilled water to the solution and store it in a cold place for future use.
- 400ml water that typically undergoes the distillation process twice is carefully added in the beaker of about 1L. Then measured macronutrients are added to the beaker. Stir the solution gently.
- Pipette out iron, micronutrients, and kinetin from the stock prepared and carefully add them to the previous solution.
- Add myo-inositol and IAA along with some marked drops of sodium hydroxide in the solution. Again add water to the solution to carefully maintain the pH of the solution adequately prepared.
- Store the solution in the refrigerator for future use .
Some of the practical applications of Murashige and Skoog medium (MS Media) are described below:
- Murashige and Skoog medium is widely used in the sustainable growth of specific cultures derived from monocots and dicots. Because of the large amount of sucrose, agar, essential vitamins, nitrate, and growth regulators in Murashige and Skoog Medium (MS Media), it typically supports the tissue culture growth of such typical plants .
- Murashige and Skoog medium (MS Media) helps in the growth of cells in suspension, development of the callus, regeneration of plantlets and shoots.
- Murashige and Skoog medium (MS Media) is utilized during the technique of micro-propagation of ornamental flowering plants, fruits, and vegetables for commercial purposes.
- Some of its key components typically play a significant role in carbohydrate metabolism.
- Murashige and Skoog medium (MS Media) plays a substantial role in the phenomena of organ culture, the study of Cytokinins, and propagation of different plant tissue cultures .
Following are the specifications of Murashige and skoog medium (MS Media) that are discussed below    .
|Properties||Murashige and Skoog Medium (MS Media)|
|Industry||Used in Agricultural industry|
|Form||Present in Powdery or liquid form|
|Color||Ranges from transparent to a pale yellow color in solution.|
|Stability||Product is stable at room temperature and dry place.|
|Precipitate formation||Small pale yellow colored precipitates may occur after time.|
|Storage temperature||Ranges between 2 to 8 degrees Celsius|
|Shipping condition||Delivered at room temperature.|
|Solubility||Soluble in water|
Hazards and Safety:
- In the specific cases of physical contact with odorless powder or liquid form of Murashige and Skoog medium (MS Media), wash your hands and face thoroughly with the practical help of excess water. Properly use a mild soap for gently cleaning the skin .
- In case of direct contact with eyes, rinse them with plenty of distilled water carefully for 15 minutes. If it causes redness and irritation in the eyes immediately seeks medical advice.
- If the Murashige and Skoog medium is ingested mistakenly, carefully wash the mouth with water. Do not induce vomiting and drink water.
- In the specific case of inspiration of odorless powder, promptly move the victim to fresh air and let him breathe fresh air.
- Murashige and Skoog medium can knowingly cause respiratory, skin, and eyes irritation if not handled properly.
- During rapid-fire, hazardous fumes are promptly released into the atmosphere. Use water sprays, foam, and dry powder for fire extinguishing purposes.
- Wear protective clothes or laboratory coats while handling the medium. Typically wear goggles and protective gloves.
- Do research at well-ventilated places. Do not release the product in the environment. It may cause problems for different living organisms. It is toxic to aquatic life.
- Murashige and Skoog medium is only used for research and laboratory purposes .
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- National Center for Biotechnology Education – Murashige and Skoog Medium Safety Data Sheet